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Global Immigration Services

Global Immigration Services

New York Office - 299 Broadway, Suite 1700 - New York, NY 10007 / Tel: 212.619.8119 / Fax: 212.619.0652




By Mamadou Diakite

1201 Broadway, Suite 809, New York, NY 1001. 212-206-6344 / 917-497-6880

New York Meat & Fish Market

New York Meat & Fish Market

African Market

By Mamadou Diakite

1729 Macombs Rd,cBronx,NY10453. (718) 294-7882

Frontpage Slideshow | Copyright © 2006-2011 JoomlaWorks Ltd.

Ancient Settlements


Ghana Empire gains its wealth by taxing the all traders who sell within Ghana. If a traders enter the Empire of Ghana they will have to leave their iron, peacock, feathers, salt or any commodity at one post in return for goods that are sold there. A traveler could then trade his own item for a commodity he ventured of to Ghana for, without going to far within the empire if he chose to do so. The interesting part is that if textiles where brought in from the North they will be distributed in a rationed manner respectively throughout the kingdom. Traders and merchants would sometimes bring commodities of their kingdom’s own ‘’royal treasury’’, they would often leave surplus amount of goods within Wagadu due to it being trade centers were all kingdoms traded within. Merchants usually came to Wagadu (Empire of Ghana) to sell textiles, camels and salt. Salt was usually sold for gold, and was even worth more than gold within the empire, salt was used as the main currency. Slaves were also sold excessively during the reign of the Ghana Empire. The Empire of Ghana also taxed its vassals extensively and other tributary chiefdoms who bordered the fringes of the empire.


The Empire of Ghana secured its territory with its strong army. According to “Al Barki” wrote in 1067 Emperor could disperse of 200,000 warriors and 40,000 cavalry men at any given time. Wagadu had gained more territory from 7th century to 11century. The Soninke people had many advantages over the armies of the neighboring territories. One of them was iron weapons and swords, and distinct superb disciplined military, with great attack formations. But the Soninke’s primary advantage was their ironmade weapons against the opposing tribes ivory and wood weapons. Their strategy was to defeat a clan or village allow the local ruler to remain in power, if he pledged allegiance to Ghana. Other times the king directly ruled over the conquered peoples without an intermediary or vassal. All conquered tribes or people were expected to provide soldiers for the army. Ghana had an estimated control of 800,000 km2 (308,882 sq mi) of land area at its apex.


The Empire of Ghana was called that for the reason that Ghana means king in the Soninke language, Islamic and European scholars named it after the king because it seemed the king controlled everything. Indeed the king of Ghana was very powerful but not a tyrant. The King’s power was moderately regulated by those who were in charge of taxes, army, justice, and other duties. The central government of the empire had a long list of advisors. They local courts of chiefs and first officers decided that matters of local affairs, which were following the mandates of the higher imperial court of the emperors and nobles. The “Soninke’ people who dominated the government, had a 3 class caste system, the “Hooro” being the first, the ”naxamala” would be the second class caste ,and the last were “komo” who were slaves. Each one of these class systems had sub-divisions also. The “Hooro” also called “free men”, were ruling class that administered authority. One “class of Hooro” the “Tunnkalemmu” were appointed to carry out authority across local courts and had the right to reward or punish. After the Tunnkalemmu were the “mangu”. The “Mangu” are the advisors of the princes. When they are also problems between different princes the “mangu “play as mediators. In most cases the “mangu” are the chief of the Army for the princes since they are called the princes “right hand” man. The second level of the caste system would be the “naxamala” who were called the dependent men. The”Tago” which were blacksmith held the highest power. After the “blacksmith Tagu” were the ”Sakko”, who also were the masters of the wood who had great knowledge of the forest. Third to come of “Naxamala”were the “Jaroo”, who were somewhat like entertainers who sang and spoke anything they want, they were solely responsible for being orators and no one else but them could be orators, The last subdivision class of “Naxamala were the” Garanko” who were responsible for making leather and other woven goods. The last class of the 3 caste were the “Komo” who were slaves, and were often times harshly treated and used to work in for their masters, they were usually used to work in farming.


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